The Dark AgesHistorical period of the Early Middle Ages (500 – 1000 AD) in Europe is called the Dark Ages. It was marked by the fall of Roman Empire, one of the most advanced and powerful world’s civilizations. Negative outcomes of the collapse included economic depression, recession of trade, as well as social and technological development, population decrease, a great number of armed conflicts and violence throughout the continent. Finally, numerous invaders, including the Vandals or Goths, aspired to dominate in Europe and within a century almost devastated the territories of its Western and Central parts.

As a result of territorial split and continuous wars, a great migration of population started. It caused a lot of cultural, language and religious conflicts throughout European lands. Migration seriously affected the development of some cultures in the northern parts of Europe, including Viking or Pict cultures. Besides, a lot of valuable historical monuments and records were ravaged and destroyed. Therefore, a gradual recovery and resurrection of the Western Europe started only in the end of the eighth century with the rise of Italian, French and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.

It is impossible to say that there was nothing positive and progressive going on in Europe during this historical period. In Early Middle Ages a powerful Byzantine Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire) became a center of economic development and cultural evolution. Besides, Christianization of Western Europe became a new cultural landmark, which played a crucial role and had a huge cultural impact due to popularization of secular learning. It laid the foundation for another historical epoch of enlightenment.